Antioxidants are molecules that can prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from an oxidation agent to a molecule. In the oxidation reactions, free radicals are formed, which start chain reactions. Free radicals are reactive compounds that have an electron surplus and therefore react with other molecules, and in this way lead to damage to cellular structures. Antioxidants prevent chain reactions in which other molecules are damaged in cells by oxidizing themselves.
Vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, alpha lipoic acid are the most well- known and commonly used antioxidants. Although their antioxidant effect is proven and powerful, we must also pay attention at the following facts: if the antioxidant takes 1 electron from the free radical and thereby neutralizes it, getting this one unpaired electron makes it starting to act as a free radical. This not only negates its antioxidant effect but leads to a chain radical reaction in which antioxidant cellular systems must be activated to neutralize these undesirable reactions. Therefore, it is recommended that antioxidant supplements should be combined with bioflavonoids (polyphenols) whose chemical structure allows them to bind not one but 2 electrons, which are a pair, and they do not become free radicals themselves.
In Karnozin Extra supplement we have found that carnosine and vitamin E bind free electrons from free radicals and these electrons are later transferred to polyphenols from grape seeds, which stop the free-radical reaction because they do not bind one free electron, but one couple of electrons.
Result: Strong and powerful antioxidant capacity, without further unwanted free radical chain reactions that can further damage the structure of membranes, proteins, lipids, and DNA.