Carnosine and its Biological Effects

The activity of carnosine is based on its antioxidative, anti-glycation and anti-carbonylation activity, in addition to the heavy metals chelation and the pH-buffering ability. We conclude that Karnozin Extra can be recommended for patients under oxidative stress as a natural remedy having high efficiency and no side effects.

Basic biological functions of carnosine are:

  • buffering of lactic acid – maintaining the pH value of muscles due to exertion;
  • chelation of heavy metals (detoxification of heavy metals);
  • removes free radicals with their antioxidant effect;
  • removal of sugar molecules = inhibition of glycation (non-enzymatic glycosylation);
  • inhibition of protein carbonylation so-called carnolyzation = (glycation and carbonylation – the typical process for the aging of proteins);
  • separation of the aldehyde (sequester of aldehyde);
  • the role of neurotransmitter;
  • protection of the proteasome;
  • reduction of the anti-inflammatory and carcinogenic effect of cytokine IL-8.

The conclusion is that carnosine removes aldehydes and eliminates extreme, harmful products of metabolism, such as degenerative parts of proteins (damaged chains of proteins, sugars and phospholipids), while has a major role in the formation of new more resistant structures. As a dietary supplement Karnozin Extra has a role in reducing the complications of diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, autism, dyslexia, schizophrenia and related syndromes.

It has been demonstrated that carnosine suppresses the non-enzymatic glycosylation and forms of proteins obtained by cross-linking and resulting from the operation of aldehydes, aldoses, ketosis, triose and malondialdehyde (MDA – the product of lipid peroxidation, which occurs under the influence of free oxygen radicals in the lipid substances). Carnosine suppresses extreme forms of protein glycosylation (Advanced Glycosylation End products or AGEs), induced by MDA. It also suppresses forms made by cross-linking of DNA proteins which are formed under the influence of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. The product of lipid peroxidation MDA reacts with the proteins and results with the products which are disclosed by tests as evidence of protein carbonylation.