It has been demonstrated that carnosine administered to experimental animals, protects against toxic substances such as cyclophosphamide and adriamycin, which are used as cytostatic drugs in the treatment of cancers and can cause many side effects. Carnosine’s ability to react with harmful aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde and methylglyoxal may also contribute to its protective functions. Carnosine can prevent the increase of liver transaminase levels in the serum and inhibit the activity of lipid peroxides under the influence of ethanol, as shown in rats. The consumption of alcohol leads to a fatty liver, which is a consequence of cirrhosis; the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of carnosine may be helpful in the treatment of chronic alcoholic liver damage, while also preventing the development of a fatty liver. People suffering from lung cancer and receiving radiation therapy as part of their treatment often experience side effects of this type of therapy. L-carnosine supplementation in these individuals moderates the unwanted effects of this therapy on top of carnosine’s anti-tumour effect.