Carnosine is a 100% natural substance – protein, a dipeptide consisting of 2 amino acids: beta-alanine and L- histidine. It is also called neuropeptide due to its protective role in the nervous system, especially in the brain. It naturally occurs in the human organism, while its greatest concentration are found in skeletal muscles, heart, cerebellum and cortex of the brain. Carnosine functions the most in “excitable” tissues, such as muscle and nerve tissue. In these tissues, it is critically important in maintaining the proper pH and electrical charge. Studies performed so far show that carnosine content in the human body is dependent on gender (the level is higher in males), age (there is a decrease in carnosine concentration with age) and diet (organisms on a vegetarian diet have a lower concentration of carnosine in the skeletal muscles).
As a dietary supplement, carnosine is available for years. However, it is not nearly as popular as it should be, based on existing scientific data.
L-carnosine took “per os” (orally) does not show any side effects, it is compatible with any medical therapy, does not interfere with any known substance, and it has been scientifically proven that carnosine can be taken by children and even babies. When we are talking about the use of carnosine in sports, it is important to clarify that carnosine is not a doping substance according to the official data of the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Chemical structure of L-carnosine (C9H14N4O3) :
IUPAC name: (2S)-2-[(3-Amino-1-oxopropyl)amino]-3-(3H-imidazol-4-yl) propanoic acid
How does carnosine work?
Simply by restoring the normal control of cell cycle. To better understand how carnosine works it is necessary to realize the following: to any “engine” is necessary to regularly change the oil, because, during its work, different microscopic (or larger) particles cause the appearance of abrasion. The oil contains detergents that dissolve the particles. When the detergent is consumed, the amount of waste particles increases, damaging the inner smooth surface, the engine loses power, all the way to total failure. The body also needs an efficient method of removal of metabolic waste, and these are mostly the remains of the destroyed structures of the proteins. If this “protein mud” is not removed, it accumulates in the cell and causes a slowdown of cell functioning, all the way to a complete stop. This also can disrupt effective cell division and probably, more importantly, to allow the potential reproduction of these abnormal cells. This leads to increased chromosomal instability, which results in degenerative changes or malignant tumours. Carbonisation of proteins becomes the main cause of cell death. Carnosine is a basic factor for the sustainability and preservation of healthy intact proteins, their functionality and early replacement.
In recent years, increases the interest and attention directed to the properties of carnosine, which is considered the substance of the century and becomes the basic medical preparation for people of all ages, especially those of 40 years or more. Studies on Carnosine are carried out in the USA, Australia, UK, Japan, Scandinavia, Russia and China. It is recommended by specialists as an important nutritional supplement in delaying the ageing process. Carnosine has been studied by many important scientists (Bruce Ames and his team at Berkeley, UCLA, one of the greatest experts in the field of molecular biology). https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cpdb/pdfs/MutatRes91.pdf
Karnozin Extra is a product that significantly exceeds traditional antioxidants, such as vitamin E or selenium, which are not as effective as previously thought.
The most important properties of Carnosine:
- safe, naturally occurring in the human body and food,
- anti-inflammatory and anticancer effect,
- universal antioxidant and cleaner of aldehydes,
- absorbs toxic effects of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and peroxide,
- protector of chromosomes (DNA) from damages caused by free radicals,
- prevents peroxidation of lipids,
- significantly inhibits processes of glycation (naturally),
- inhibits the formation of AGEs, protects proteins against damage caused by AGEs,
- prevents the formation of cross-links proteins,
- provides multifunctional protection of proteins and phospholipids,
- protects proteins from damage caused by carbonylation,
- inhibits processes of damaged healthy proteins by their denatured forms,
- helps to recycle damaged proteins by protecting the proteasome,
- helps to preserve normal protein recovery,
- has a significant positive effect on autistic disorders,
- protects brain cells from damage,
- protects brain proteins,
- acts as a neurotransmitter,
- rejuvenates elderly cultured human cells,
- extends life,
- protects against the toxic effect of heavy metals, chelates, zinc and copper (positive effects in Alzheimer’s disease)
- prevents the formation of cross -links of beta- amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease
In nature, a major source of carnosine is red meat. It is mainly absorbed in the upper digestive tract (in the jejunum), then by blood directly gets to the muscles, heart, brain and other organs. Human plasma contains no measurable amount of carnosine, therefore the laboratory analysis of blood cannot be used as evidence of its possible deficit. However, the content of carnosine in plasma increases due to muscle injuries, and then its amount can be used as a detector of muscle injurie. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941308
L-carnosine is a highly effective anti-ageing compound that possesses powerful antioxidant, free radical catching and neurotransmitter properties. Carnosine inhibits the formation of carbonyl groups, thereby reducing the formation of abnormal proteins. L-Carnosine extends maximum cell division capacity, protects against DNA oxidation, blocks glycosylation and reduces Advanced Glycation end products (AGEs), as well as acting as a cell membrane stabilizer and an intracellular buffer. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29858687
Carnosine is synthesized in the body from the amino acids, alanine and histidine with the help of the enzyme carnosine-syntheses. This reaction is generally conducted in the brain and muscle. The second group of enzymes, which are referred to as dipeptidase compose carnosine in the blood and other tissues.