Heart diseases continue to be the biggest killer, responsible for about half of all the deaths. Polyunsaturated fatty acids occur as a major part of the low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in blood and oxidation of these lipid components in LDL play a vital role in atherosclerosis. With a continued high level of oxidized lipids, the blood vessels are being damaged.
Harmful reaction process continues and can lead to generation of foam cells and plaque the symptoms of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL is atherogenic and is thought to be important in the formation of atherosclerosis plaques. Furthermore, oxidized LDL is cytotoxic and can directly damage endothelial cells.
Carnosine’s anti-glycation and anti-carbonylating properties help prevent harmful modifications of LDL cholesterol molecules that contribute to early stages of arterial plaque formation, a benefit especially important in protecting blood vessels from diabetic damage. But even after substantial damage has been done, and arteries are clogged, carnosine offers potentially lifesaving benefits. When blood flow is obstructed, the tissue is starved of oxygen and nutrients by the resulting ischemia. Even though the restriction of blood flow produces immediate damage, still more damage occurs when blood flow is restored and oxygen-rich blood floods the area. This double-hit is called ischemia/reperfusion injury and accounts for much of the disability that follows a heart attack, stroke, or traumatic injury.
In brain ischemia, preclinical evidence showed that carnosine has a protective role and promotes regeneration of the injured tissue. Carnosine also reverses the impaired function of mitochondria in ischemia and therefore ameliorates the damage to mitochondria and provides protection against neuronal death (Baek et al, 2014).
Oxidant stress eventually shortens our life span by contributing to the risk of atherosclerosis and its consequences such as heart attack and stroke. Carnosine’s powerful antioxidant effects, coupled with its ability to scavenge both free radicals and damaged protein products, give it unique protective characteristics that have the potential to lengthen life span.
L-carnosine can inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity that otherwise promotes hypertension, thus diminishing obesity-associated blood pressure elevations.
Healthy myocardium naturally contains a certain concentration of carnosine. Carnosine supplementation, of course, significantly improves the strength and endurance of the heart muscle (by 30%). The loss of contractility of myocardial cells is a common cause of death in ischemic heart disease. Based on the results of recent pharmacological tests, it was concluded that carnosine improves myocardial contractility even during ischemia, as well as verapamil (a medicine-blocker of calcium channel), which is often prescribed during the treatment of heart diseases.
Also, in the animal models, L-carnosine reduced doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, the common side effect of anti-cancer drugs. Carnosine seems to be cardioprotective during DOX administration in oncological patients. http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2003/6_1079.pdf
Karnozin Extra opens up new horizons in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Based on the tests, the beneficial effect of carnosine on cardiovascular disorders can be summarized as follows:
- increased strength of contraction of the myocardium,
- regulation of blood pressure
- protection from lack of oxygen (hypoxia, ischemia) in tissues suffering from ischemic heart diseases,
- protection against oxidation of LDL – cholesterol and atherosclerosis.
Carnosine has a wide operation as a cure for all forms of reduced efficiency of pumping of the heart. Studies have shown that Carnosine can improve heart function, possibly by regulating cellular calcium levels – as Carnosine has been shown to do in rats. Moreover, carnosine reduces the level of leptin, the obesity hormone. The level of this hormone is increased several times in the blood of diabetic patients but also increases the blood pressure. Also, carnosine provides protection against the hardening of arteries. Carnosine lowers blood pressure through vasodilation (opening blood vessels).
Finally, it is possible to say that Karnozin Extra is an outstanding dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of almost all cardiovascular disorders.
Baek, S. H., Noh, A. R., Kim, K. A., Akram, M., Shin, Y. J., Kim, E. S., … & Bae, O. N. (2014). Modulation of mitochondrial function and autophagy mediates carnosine neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage. Stroke, 45(8), 2438-2443.
Caruso, G., Fresta, C. G., Grasso, M., Santangelo, R., Lazzarino, G., Lunte, S. M., & Caraci, F. (2020). Inflammation as the common biological link between depression and cardiovascular diseases: can carnosine exert a protective role?. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 27(11), 1782-1800.
Rashid, I., van Reyk, D. M., & Davies, M. J. (2007). Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low-density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro. FEBS letters, 581(5), 1067-1070.
Roberts, P. R., & Zaloga, G. P. (2000). Cardiovascular effects of carnosine. BIOCHEMISTRY C/C OF BIOKHIMIIA, 65(7), 856-861.